Epidemiological surveillance for multidrug-resistant microorganisms in a general ICU
ANA FERNÁNDEZ-VERDUGO, JAVIER FERNÁNDEZ, DOLORES ESCUDERO, LUIS COFIÑO, LORENA FORCELLEDO, MAURICIO TELENTI, EMILIO GARCÍA-PRIETO, RAQUEL RODRÍGUEZ-GARCÍA, LAURA ÁLVAREZ-GARCÍA, ANA PÉREZ-GARCÍA, CARLOS RODRÍGUEZ-LUCAS, FERNANDO VAZQUEZ
Introduction. Multidrug resistant (MDR) microorganisms represent a threat for patients admitted in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). The objective of the present study is to analyse the results of epidemiological surveillance cultures for these microorganisms in one of these units. Material and methods. General ICU. Retrospective analysis, descriptive statistics. Analysis of epidemiological surveillance cultures for MDR microorganisms in 2015. Studied microorganisms: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), ESBL-and/or carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CESBL-KP) and MDR Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB). Results. One thousand, two hundred and fifty nine patients admitted. A total of 2,234 specimens from 384 patients were analysed (690, 634, 62 and 286 were rectal, throat, nasal and skin swabs respectively). Global APACHE II was 18.3 ± 8 versus 21.7 ± 7.8 in patients colonized/infected on admission. Global mortality was 19.7% versus 22.3% in patients colonized/infected on admission. The higher sensitivities achieved with the different samples for the different microorganism detection were as follows. MRSA: 79% and 90% for nasal and nasal + throat swabs, respectively. MDRAB: 80% and 95% for throat and throat + rectal swabs, respectively. CESBL-KP: 95% and 98% for rectal and rectal + throat swabs, respectively. 94 out of the 384 patients (24.4%) were colonized/infected with MDR at admission. 134 patients (10.6% of the total patients admitted) were colonized/infected with a total of 169 MMR during the hospital stay. MRSA has the earliest colonization/infection (9.2 ± 6.4days) and ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, the latest (18.7± 16.4 days). Conclusions. 24.4% of patients were colonized/infected by MDR at admission. Nasal, throat and rectal swabs were the most effective specimens for recovering MRSA, MDRAB and CESBL-KP, respectively. The combination of two specimens improves MDR detection except for CESBL-KP. Skin swabs are worthless. The most prevalent MDR at admission were ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae while the most frequent hospital acquired MDR was MDRAB.
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