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Rev Esp Quimioter 2018; January 31

Antibiotic diffusion to central nervous system

JOSÉ MARÍA CABRERA-MAQUEDA, LUNA FUENTES RUMÍ, GABRIEL VALERO LÓPEZ, ANA ESTHER BAIDEZ GUERRERO, ESTEFANÍA GARCÍA MOLINA, JOSÉ DÍAZ PÉREZ, ELISA GARCÍA-VÁZQUEZ

Central nervous system (CNS) infections caused by pathogens with a reduced sensitivity to drugs are a therapeutic challenge. Transport of fluid and solutes is tightly controlled within CNS, where vasculature exhibits a blood-brain barrier (BBB).The entry of drugs, including antibiotics, into the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) is governed by molecular size, lipophilicity, plasma protein binding and their affinity to transport systems at the BBB. The ratio of the AUCCSF (Area under the curve in CSF)/AUCS (Area under the curve in serum) is the most accurate parameter to characterize drug penetration into the CSF. Linezolid, some fluoroquinolones and metronidazole get high CSF concentrations and are useful for treating susceptible pathogens. Some highly active antibiotic compounds with low BBB permeability can be directly administered into the ventricles together with concomitant intravenous therapy. The ideal antibiotic to treat CNS infections should be that with a small moderately lipophilic molecule, low plasma protein binding and low affinity to efflux pumps at BBB. Knowledge of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antibiotics at the BBB will assist to optimize antibiotic treatment in CNS infections. This article reviews the physicochemical properties of the main groups of antibiotics to assess which compounds are most promising for the treatment of CNS infections and how to use them in the daily clinical practice.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2017; Jan 31 [Texto completo PDF]