Rev Esp Quimioter 2009;22(1):38-47

Importance of the antimicrobial spectrum and the bacterial resistances in the antibiotic Choice for the treatment of pediatric patients with comunitary infections

F. Baquero ,  J. González ,  D. Martínez ,  V. Olmo ,  A. Orero y J. Prieto (Grupo MUSA) 


Objective. This study aimed to know the importance of the antimicrobial spectrum and the bacterial resistances for the antibiotic choice in the extrahospitalary pediatric area, at the same time that establish the relationship with others therapeutics parameters.

Material and methods. Cross-sectional, observational study within the MUSA (Improvement of Use of Antimicrobial Agents in Primary Health Care) Project made by personal interview of 210 pediatrician doctors randomly selected with national represantitivity. This target is included in a bigger universe (855 doctors) representative of the most doctors responsible of the antibiotic prescriptions in the extrahospitalary area (sample error of the 3,3 % for a 95 % confidence interval and maximum response dispersion: p=q=50). The results of the pediatric study were subjected to a comparative analysis with the results of a similar study made ten years ago and with the global results of the general study. The questionnaire used for the interview had two crearly differenced parts: in the first part, the questions were open with the objective to get spontanious answers from the participants; the second part had questions with suggested answers.

Results. Clinical efficacy is the most spontaneously valored issue by the spanish pediatricians when it comes to choosing an antimicrobial agent; efficacy is followed by tolerance/safety and posology. Antimicrobial spectrum is mentioned by one out of 4-5 pediatricians that have participated in the study (21,9%), while the bacterial resistances are only mentioned by a 3,8%. In a suggested level, clinical efficacy is still the most valued parameter, being identified by 7 out of 10 interviewed with the bacterial eradication. In this case, the antimicrobial spectrum is the following parameter on significance, appearing as a synonym of «activity against specific microorganisms» in 2 out of 3 cases. In relation to his own evaluation, 3 out of 4 pediatricians say they take «a lot» the bacterial resistences into consideration, who are mostly understood as «global rate» for 5-6 out of 10 interviewed, whether the resistence showed by the neumococo is what worried the most to 4 out of 10 of them. This importance given to the bacterial resistences at the second part of the study contrasts with the low consideration showed when it is compared eith other parameters and the valoration is treated in a spontaneous way.In relation to a similar study realized on 1997 (Urano Proyect), we observe that clinical efficacy has replaced tolerance/safety as a parameter to bear in mind, probably as a consequence of more experience and confidence with the most important antimicrobial agents in the antibiotic prescriptions in podiatry. On the other hand, the bacterial resistences still being left out on the pediatricians spontaneous consideration, a fact that is shared with the mayority of the collectives participating on the general study. The rest of the parameters stay in a similar way.

Conclusions. Is necessary to emphasize at the importance of bacterial resistences in the antimicrobials rational use on the pediatric patient. As the antimicrobial tolerance profile has been improving in the last ten years, clinical efficacy, understood as «bacterial eradication » has became the most determinating parameter when choosing antimicrobial agents.


Key words:Antimicrobials. Pediatry. Bacterial resistences. Antibiotic spectrum. Clinical efficacy.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2009;22(1):38-47   [pdf]