Rev Esp Quimioter 2010:23(4):158-168
Nosocomial candidemia: new challenges of an emergent problem
J. GÓMEZ, E. GARCÍA-VAZQUEZ, A. HERNÁNDEZ, C. ESPINOSA, J. RUIZ GÓMEZ
Candida spp. are currently one of the most common causes of bloodstream infections in hospitals. Over the last two decades there has been a shift towards a greater involvement of non-Candida albicans as the cause of candidemia. Several of these non-albicans spp. (e.g., C. glabrata and C.krusei) exhibit resistance to traditional triazole antifungals (fluconazole), and cross-resistance with newer triazoles (voriconazole), focusing attention on the first-line use of antifungals such as the echinocandins, which possess improved activity against fluconazole-resistant strains. Early and adequate empirical treatment as well as early removing of the central catheters are the main factors related to mortality; thus it is necessary to implement guidelines of empirical treatment (including these aspects) in patients with risk factors and possible candidemia. Recent treatment guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) recommend an echinocandin as primary therapy for non neutropenic or neutropenic patients with moderately severe to severe candidiasis and for patients at risk for infection with a triazole-resistant strain; the increasing MIC of echinocandins in case of C. parapsilosisis also an emerging concern. Clinicians should remain vigilant to prescribe early empiric treatment of patients at risk of having candidemia.
Rev Esp Quimioter 2010:23(4):158-168 [pdf]