Rev Esp Quimioter 2012:25(3):206-215
Impact of liposomal amphotericin B on renal function in critically ill patients with renal function impairment
F. ÁLVAREZ-LERMA, M. C. SORIANO, M. RODRÍGUEZ, M. CATALÁN, A. M. LLORENTE, N. VIDART, M. GARITACELAYA, E. MARAVÍ, E. FERNÁNDEZ, F. ALVARADO, M. LÓPEZ, B. ÁLVAREZ-SÁNCHEZ, J. ESPINOSA, E. QUINTANA AND THE STUDY GROUP OF LIPOSOMAL AMPHOTERICIN B IN THE ICU
Objetive: To assess the tolerability of liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) in critically ill patients with elevated serum creatinine concentrations (Cr) (> 1.5 mg/dL) at starting L-AmB therapy.
Methods: Retrospective, multicenter, comparative study of two cohorts of critically ill patients treated with L-AmB during 3 or more days, the difference between them was the level of Cr at the beginning of treatment. A cutoff value of Cr of 1.5 mg/dL was established. Patients undergoing extrarenal depuration procedures before or 48 hours after starting L-AmB were excluded. The primary endpoint was the difference between Cr values at the end of treatment as compared with Cr at starting L-AmB. Secondary endpoints were treatment-related withdrawals, need of extrarenal depuration techniques, and treatment-related severe adverse events. Demographic data, underlying illness, indication of L-AmB therapy, concomitant risk factors of nephrotoxicity, and vital status at ICU and hospital discharge were recorded.
Results: A total of 122 patients admitted to 26 ICUs (16 with Cr > 1.5 g/dL; 106 with normal Cr levels) were recruited. Main reasons for the use of L-AmB in both groups were the broad spectrum of the drug and the presence of hemodynamic instability. L-AmB was administered as first-line treatment in 68.8% of patients with elevated Cr and in 52.8% with normal Cr. The APACHE II score on ICU admission was 25 in patients with elevated Cr and 17 in those with normal Cr values (p < 0.001). Duration of treatment with L-AmB was 16 and 12 days in patients with elevate and normal Cr values, respectively, with a mean dose of 3.5 vs 3.9 mg/kg/day. The use of concomiImpact tant nephrotoxic drugs, mortality rate, and ICU and hospital length of stay were similar in both cohorts. In patients with renal function impairment at the initiation of L-AmB treatment, an absolute decrease of Cf-Ci of 1.08 mg/dL was observed (P < 0.001). A decrease of Cr levels to normal limits was observed in 50% of the patients; in 37.5% of patients there was a decrease but normal levels were not achieved, whereas a Cr increased occurred in only one (6.25%) patient. None of the patients required withdrawal of L-AmB or use of extrarenal depuration procedures. Treatment-related severe adverse events were not reported.
Conclusions: In critically ill patients with impaired renal function, the impact of L-AmB on renal function was minimal. L-AmB can be used for the treatment of fungal infections in critically ill patients independently of renal function at the initiation of treatment.
Rev Esp Quimioter 2012:25(3):206-215 [pdf]