Rev Esp Quimioter 2016, 29(2):69-75

A comparison of the efficacy of piperacillin-tazobactam and cefoperazone-sulbactam therapies in the empirical treatment of patients with febrile neutropenia     




Introduction. Empirical antibiotic therapy in neutropenic patients presenting with fever plays a significant role in reducing mortality related to infection. Empirical therapies with broad-spectrum intravenous bactericidal, anti-pseudomonal antibiotics are accepted treatments for febrile neutropenic patients. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of piperacillin-tazobactam (PIP-TAZO) and cefoperozone-sulbactam (CS) therapies in adult patients with haematological malignancies presenting with neutropenic fever in a prospective study design.
Methodology. Patients with haematological malignancies (leukaemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and myelodysplastic syndrome) were recruited from June 2010–May 2013.  Participants were over 18 years old, with an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of less than 500/mm³ following chemotherapy or expected to have an ANC less than 500/mm³ in the first 48 h post-chemotherapy, and with an oral body temperature ≥ 38.3°C at a single measurement or 38.0°C after 1-h monitoring. Patients were randomised to the two treatment groups. The initial empirical therapy comprised PIP-TAZO (4.5 g/6 h/day, IV) and CS (2 g/8 h/day, IV).
Results. The overall success rate was 61% with CS and 49% with PIP-TAZO (p =0.247). Factors affecting the treatment success included a neutrophil count <100/mm3, being in the relapse/refractory stage of malignancy, and the presence of a microbiologically documented infection (p <0.05).
Conclusion. PIP-TAZO and CS monotherapies are equally effective and safe for the empirical treatment of febrile neutropenic patients.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2016; 29(2):69-75 [pdf]