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Rev Esp Quimioter 2022; April 11

High incidence of COVID-19 at nursing homes in Madrid, Spain, despite preventive measures

PILAR ESCRIBANO, MARÍA JESÚS PÉREZ-GRANDA, ROBERTO ALONSO, PILAR CATALÁN, LUIS ALCALÁ, JOSÉ ANTONIO SERRA-REXARCH, LAURA OSUNA, ALEJANDRO FERNÁNDEZ, AURORA CONTI, ALBERTO CASTELLANOS, JESÚS GUINEA, PATRICIA MUÑOZ, EMILIO BOUZA

Published: 11 April 2022

http://www.doi.org/10.37201/req/008.2022

Objective. To assess the impact of COVID-19 at nine nursing homes in Madrid, Spain, during the first wave of COVID-19 infection and lockdown period when preventive measures were taken to avoid transmission among residents.
Methods. Nine hundred forty-two residents and 846 staff members from nine nursing homes participated in the study (April 18 to June 20, 2020). All participants were tested for SARS-CoV-2 in the nasopharynx by PCR and for IgG antibodies detection. Microbiological status at sampling was defined as active infection (positive PCR ± presence of antibodies), past infection (negative PCR + presence of antibodies), or naïve participants (negative PCR + absence of antibodies).
Results. Laboratory results helped classify the residents as having active infection (n=224; 23.8%), past infection (n=462; 49.1%), or being naïve (n=256; 27.1%); staff members were actively infected (n=127; 15.1%), had had a past infection (n=290; 34.2%), or were naïve (n=429; 50.7%). Overall, the percentage of participants with COVID-19 was significantly higher in residents than in staff members (72.8% vs 49.2%; P=0.001). The clinical situation of residents vs staff at sampling was as follows: acute manifestations compatible with COVID-19 (7.3% vs 3.9%; P<0.01) and no manifestations of infection (92.7% vs 96.0%; P<0.01). A large proportion of both asymptomatic and symptomatic residents (69.4% vs 86.6%; P=0.015) had positive PCR results (mostly alongside positive IgG determinations).
Conclusions. COVID-19 affects 75% of the residents in nursing homes in Madrid. The high impact in these settings, despite the strict restrictions adopted during the lockdown, demonstrates the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to cause outbreaks.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2022; April 11 [Full-text PDF]