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Rev Esp Quimioter 2020; August 7

Emerging infectious diseases: Streptococcus suis meningitis   

(Enfermedades infecciosas emergentes: Meningitis por Streptococcus suis)

JORGE JOVER-GARCÍA, CELIA LÓPEZ-MILLÁN, JESÚS J. GIL-TOMÁS

Published: 7 August 2020

http://www.doi.org/10.37201/req/055.2020

LETTER TO THE EDITOR

Rev Esp Quimioter 2020; August 7 [Full-text PDF]


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Rev Esp Quimioter 2020; August 5

Development of a predictive model for hospital mortality and re-admission in a cohort of infected patients that require hospitalization

JULIO VILLANUEVA, LARA MONTES-ANDUJAR, ORVILLE V BAEZ-PRAVIA, ERIC JORGE GARCÍA-LAMBERECHTS, JUAN GONZÁLEZ DEL CASTILLO, ANDRÉS RUIZ, CARMEN ZURDO, JOSÉ BARBERÁN, JUSTO MENÉNDEZ, PABLO CARDINAL-FERNÁNDEZ

Published: 5 August 2020

http://www.doi.org/10.37201/req/063.2020

Introduction. The aims of the study were: to develop a predictive model for hospital mortality and another for hospital re-admission, to identify the impact of antibiotic delay in the mortality rate and, to report the rate of inappropriate antibiotic therapy.
Material and methods. A cohort and retrospective study was conducted at the HM Sanchinarro University Hospital during the period September 1st, 2012 to March 31th, 2013. The inclusion criteria were: age> 18 years, hospital admission from the ED with a diagnosis of bacterial infection. The exclusion criteria were: suspected viral infection, negative bacteriological cultures, life expectancy less than 6 months, lack of clinical information, assistance exclusively by the trauma emergency department. Two logistic models were made (hospital mortality and hospital re-admission).
Results. A total of 517 patients were included. The final mortality model (30 deaths) include the following variables: respiratory rate (OR 1.12; IC95% 1.02; 1.22), oxygen saturation (OR 0.92; IC95% 0.87; 0.98), creatinine (OR 2.33; IC95% 1.62; 3.36), COPD (OR 3.02; IC95% 1.06; 8.21), cancer (OR 3.34; IC95% 1.07; 9.98) and chemotherapy in the last 3 months (OR 4.83; IC95% 1.54; 16.41). The final model for hospital re-admission (28 re-admissions) include the following variables: hepatopathy (OR 5.51; IC95% 1.57; 16.88), GPT (OR 1.005; IC95% 1.003; 1.008), history of stroke (OR 5.06; IC95% 1.04; 18.80) and arterial hypertension (OR 3.15; IC95% 1.38; 7.56). The antibiotic therapy delays not influenced the mortality or re-admission rate. In 24.3% the causative microorganism was identified and antibiotic treatment was inappropriate 19.6%.
Conclusion. Hospital mortality rate was 5.8% and readmission rate was 5.7%. Variables associated with mortality differ from those associated with re-admission. The delay in the antibiotic initiation was not associated with a deleterious effect. Antibiotic therapy was inadequate in almost 20% of patients.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2020; August 5 [Texto completo PDF]


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Rev Esp Quimioter 2020; August 3

Is stratification of antibiotic susceptibility of urinary pathogens useful in the Emergency Department?

YOLANDA HERNÁNDEZ-HERMIDA, NEREA LÓPEZ-MUÑOZ, JUAN-IGNACIO ALÓS

Published: 3 August 2020

http://www.doi.org/10.37201/req/068.2020

Objective. The aim of the study wat to analyze the antibiotic susceptibility of the pathogens causing urinary tract infection (UTI) and to stratify the results in function of patient´s clinical and demographic dates.
Material and methods. The susceptibility of the pathogens isolated in the urine of 144 patients with UTI randomly chosen was analyzed. The results were stratified in function of sex, age, type of UTI, previous UTI and previous antibiotic treatment.
Results. The susceptibility of the all isolates and of the Escherichia coli isolates was analyzed. There were significant differences between groups in function of sex (fluoroquinolones), age (cefuroxime, ertapenem and gentamicin), type of UTI (cefuroxime, cefotaxime, ertapenem and fluoroquinolones), previous UTI and previous antibiotic treatment (cefotaxime, fluoroquinolones and fosfomycin).
Conclusions. The use of clinical and demographic data according to population and local resistance epidemiology of the pathogen causing UTI may help to select an adequate empirical treatment for UTI.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2020; August 3 [Texto completo PDF]


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Rev Esp Quimioter 2020; August 3

Diagnóstico diferencial de la neumonía en los tiempos del COVID-19   

(Differential diagnosis of pneumonia at the time of COVID-19)

MARCOS FRAGIEL, JESÚS CANORA LEBRATO, FRANCISCO JAVIER CANDEL, ANTONIO ZAPATERO GAVIRIA, JAVIER MARCO MARTÍNEZ, JUAN GONZÁLEZ DEL CASTILLO

Published: 3 August 2020

http://www.doi.org/10.37201/req/058.2020

LETTER TO THE EDITOR

Rev Esp Quimioter 2020; August 3 [Texto completo PDF]


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Rev Esp Quimioter 2020; July 30

The first 100 cases of COVID-19 in a Hospital in Madrid with a 2-month follow-up

PATRICIA MUÑOZ, ALICIA GALAR, PILAR CATALÁN, MARICELA VALERIO, TERESA ALDAMIZ-ECHEVARRÍA, CARLOS CÓLLIGA, EMILIO BOUZA, ON BEHALF OF THE GREGORIO MARAÑÓN MICROBIOLOGY-ID COVID 19 STUDY GROUP

Published: 30 July 2020

http://www.doi.org/10.37201/req/072.2020

Background. There are few descriptions of the clinical presentation and evolution of consecutive SARS-CoV-2 infections with a long-enough follow up.
Methods. Description of the first consecutive 100 patients with microbiologically-proven COVID-19 in a large hospital in Madrid, Spain including a minimum of two-month follow up.
Results. The median age of the patients (52% males) was 61.5 years (IQR=39.5-82.0) and the median BMI was 28.8 kg/m2 (IQR=24.7-33.7). Overall 72% of the patients had one or more co-morbid conditions with a median age-adjusted Charlson index of 2 (IQR=0-5.7). Five patients (5%) were immunosuppressed. The most common symptoms at the time of diagnosis were fever (80.0%), cough (53.0%) and dyspnea (23.0%). The median O2 saturation at the time of first examination was 94% (IQR=90-97). Chest X-ray on admission was compatible with pneumonia in 63% of the cases (bilateral in 42% and unilateral in 21%). Overall, 30% were managed at home and 70% were admitted to the hospital. Thirteen patients were admitted to the ICU with a median of 11 days of stay in the Unit (IQR=6.0-28.0). CALL score of our population ranged from 4 to 13. Overall, 60.0% of patients received antibiotic treatment and 66.0%, empirical antiviral treatment, mainly with lopinavir/ritonavir (65%) or hydroxychloroquine (42%). Mortality, with a minimum of 60 days of follow up, was 23%. The median age of the deceased patients was 85 years (IQR=79-93).
Conclusions. We found a high mortality in the first 100 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 at our institution, associated with advanced age and the presence of serious underlying diseases.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2020; July 30 [Full-text PDF]


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Rev Esp Quimioter 2020; July 22

Healthcare-associated pneumonia: a prospective study in Spain

FRANCISCO ARNAÍZ DE LAS REVILLAS, DOLORES SOUSA, CARMEN ARDANUY, CAROLINA GARCÍA-VIDAL, MIGUEL MONTEJO, REGINO RODRÍGUEZ-ÁLVAREZ, JUAN PASQUAU, EMILIO BOUZA, JOSÉ A. OTEO, CÉSAR BALSEIRO, CRISTINA MÉNDEZ, NADIA LWOFF, PEDRO LLINARES, MARÍA CARMEN FARIÑAS, ON BEHALF OF THE SOCRATES STUDY GROUP

Published: 22 July 2020

http://www.doi.org/10.37201/req/067.2020

Objective. The aim of the study was to describe the epidemiological characteristics and factors related to outcome in Streptococcus pneumoniae and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP).
Patients and method. A 3-year prospective observational epidemiological case study of HCAP was conducted in seven Spanish hospitals. Microbiological and patient characteristics and outcomes were collected and classified by causative pathogen into 4 categories: “S. pneumoniae”, “MRSA”, “Others” and “Unknown”. Patients were followed up 30 days after discharge.
Results. A total of 258 (84.6%) patients were enrolled (170 were men [65.9%]). Mean age was 72.4 years ± 15 years (95% CI [70.54-74.25]). The etiology of pneumonia was identified in 73 cases (28.3%): S. pneumoniae in 35 patients (13.6%), MRSA in 8 (3.1%), and other microorganisms in 30 patients (11.6%). Significant differences in rates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (p < 0.05), previous antibiotic treatment (p< 0.05), other chronic respiratory diseases, inhaled corticosteroids (p < 0.01), and lymphoma (p < 0.05) were observed among the four groups. Patients with MRSA pneumonia had received more previous antibiotic treatment (87.5%). Thirty-three (12.8%) patients died during hospitalisation; death in 27 (81.2%) was related to pneumonia.
Conclusions. The etiology of HCAP was identified in only one quarter of patients, with S. pneumoniae being the most prevalent microorganism. Patients with chronic respiratory diseases more frequently presented HCAP due to MRSA than to S. pneumoniae. Death at hospital discharge was related in most cases to pneumonia.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2020; July 22 [Full-text PDF]


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Rev Esp Quimioter 2020; July 20

Scoping review of coronavirus case series (SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) and their obstetric and neonatal results

NOELIA RODRÍGUEZ-BLANCO, IRENE VEGARA-LOPEZ, LORETO ALEO-GINER, JOSÉ TUELLS

Published: 20 July 2020

http://www.doi.org/10.37201/req/064.2020

Background. The appearance of new infectious diseases, such as COVID-19, poses a challenge in monitoring pregnancy and preventing obstetric and neonatal complications. A scoping review has the objective to review the information available in pregnant women infected with the MERS-CoV, SARSCoV, SARS-CoV-2 coronaviruses to assess the similarities in terms of and differences in the clinical characteristics of the mothers and neonatal outcomes.
Methods. We carried out a bibliographic search (scoping review) according to the PRISMA guidelines between March and April 2020 in the MEDLINE, SciELO, and CUIDEN databases and the Elsevier COVID-19 Information Center.
Results. We analyzed 20 articles with a total of 102 cases. 9 of MERS-CoV, 14 of SARS-CoV and 79 of SARS-CoV-2. Fever (75.5%) and pneumonia (73.5%) were the most frequent symptoms in infected pregnant women. The most frequent obstetric complications were the threat of premature delivery (23.5%) and caesarean section (74.5%). No vertical transmission was documented in any of the infants.
Conclusions. All three coronaviruses produce pneumonia with very similar symptoms, being milder in the case of SARSCoV2. Despite documented obstetric complications, neonatal outcomes are mostly favorable. Increased knowledge is needed to improve and prevent obstetric and neonatal complications from these infections in pregnant women.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2020; July 20 [Texto completo PDF]


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Rev Esp Quimioter 2020; 33(4): 267-273

Potential biomarkers predictors of mortality in COVID-19 patients in the Emergency Department

NATALIA F. PASCUAL GÓMEZ, IVÁN MONGE LOBO, INMACULADA GRANERO CREMADES, ANGELS FIGUEROLA TEJERINA, FERNANDO RAMASCO RUEDA, ANDRÉS VON WERNITZ TELEKI, FRANCISCO MANUEL ARRABAL CAMPOS, M. ÁNGELES SANZ DE BENITO

Published: 13 July 2020

http://www.doi.org/10.37201/req/060.2020

Objective. Identify which biomarkers performed in the first emergency analysis help to stratify COVID-19 patients according to mortality risk.
Method. Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study performed with data collected from patients with suspected COVID-19 in the Emergency Department from February 24 to March 16, 2020. The univariate and multivariate study was performed to find independent mortality markers and calculate risk by building a severity score.
Results. A total of 163 patients were included, of whom 33 died and 29 of them were positive for the COVID-19 PCR test. We obtained as possible factors to conform the Mortality Risk Score age> 75 years ((adjusted OR = 12,347, 95% CI: 4,138-36,845 p = 0.001), total leukocytes> 11,000 cells / mm3 (adjusted OR = 2,649, 95% CI: 0.879-7.981 p = 0.083), glucose> 126 mg / dL (adjusted OR = 3.716, 95% CI: 1.247-11.074 p = 0.018) and creatinine> 1.1 mg / dL (adjusted OR = 2.566, 95% CI: 0.889- 7.403, p = 0.081) This score was called COVEB (COVID, Age, Basic analytical profile) with an AUC 0.874 (95% CI: 0.816-0.933, p <0.001; Cut-off point = 1 (sensitivity = 89.66 % (95% CI: 72.6% -97.8%), specificity = 75.59% (95% CI: 67.2% -82.8%). A score <1 has a negative predictive value = 100% (95% CI: 93.51% -100%) and a positive predictive value = 18.59% (95% CI: 12.82% -25.59%).
Conclusions. Clinical severity scales, kidney function biomarkers, white blood cell count parameters, the total neutrophils / total lymphocytes ratio and procalcitonin are early risk factors for mortality. The variables age, glucose, creatinine and total leukocytes stand out as the best predictors of mortality. A COVEB score <1 indicates with a 100% probability that the patient with suspected COVID-19 will not die in the next 30 days.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2020; 33(4): 267-273 [Texto completo PDF]


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Rev Esp Quimioter 2020; July 7

The Spanish flu and the fiction literature

EMMA VÁZQUEZ- ESPINOSA, CLAUDIO LAGANÀ, FERNANDO VÁZQUEZ

Published: 7 July 2020

http://www.doi.org/10.37201/req/049.2020

This review focuses on the fictional literature in which the Spanish flu is represented either as an anecdotal or as a historical aspect and the effect on the author or fictional character. We examine this sociocultural period in the press and mainly in Anglo-Saxon literary works and from other countries, including Spanish and Latin American literature that is not very represented in some international reviews on the subject. Also, we include books about the previous and subsequent influenza pandemics to the Spanish flu.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2020; July 7 [Full-text PDF]


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Rev Esp Quimioter 2020; July 6

Debut pediátrico de fascitis necrotizante   

(Necrotizing fasciitis pediatric debut)

ROCÍO CABRA-RODRÍGUEZ, MARÍA JOSÉ RUÍZ-MÁRQUEZ

Published: 6 July 2020

http://www.doi.org/10.37201/req/036.2020

LETTER TO THE EDITOR

Rev Esp Quimioter 2020; July 6 [Texto completo PDF]