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Rev Esp Quimioter 2021; October 14

Grangrena de Fournier secundaria a un absceso inguinoperineal por Acidaminococcus intestini y Streptococcus gallolyticus spp. pasteurianusa

ISMAIL ZAKARIYA-YOUSEF BREVAL, NOELIA TRUJILLO DÍAZ, PABLO DE LA HERRANZ GUERRERO

Published: 14 October 2021

LETTER TO THE EDITOR

http://www.doi.org/10.37201/req/070.2021

Rev Esp Quimioter 2021; October 14 [Texto completo PDF]


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Rev Esp Quimioter 2021; October 13

In vitro activity of imipenem/relebactam against Gram-negative clinical isolates in two Spanish tertiary hospitals

MARINA PEÑUELAS, CRISTINA GARCÍA-SALGUERO, MELANIA IÑIGO, JOSE MANUEL VIÑUELA-PRIETO, FRANCISCO JAVIER CANDEL, JOSÉ LUIS DEL POZO, ESTHER CULEBRAS

Published: 13 October 2021

http://www.doi.org/10.37201/req/102.2021

Objetive. The aim of this study was to analyze the activity of the imipenem-relebactam combination (IMI/REL) against a collection of multidrug-resist Enterobacterales, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates.
Material and methods. The study was conducted in two tertiary hospitals in Spain and included 192 clinical isolates of these 3 genera (139 resistant and 53 susceptible to IMI). The MICs for IMI with and without REL (at a fixed concentration of 4 mg/L) were determined by a standard broth microdilution method according to international recommendations.
Results. All IMI-susceptible E. coli strains were also susceptible to IMI/REL. Enterobacterales resistant to IMI due to the production of carbapenemases, the MIC50 and MIC90 decreased from 64/256 with IMI to 8/64 mg/L with IMI/REL. This high activity was principally detected among isolates with KPC enzymes. Enterobacterales with class B carbapenemases, P. aeruginosa carrying VIM carbapenemase and A. baumannii strains showed no changes on IMI MIC50 or MIC90 after adding REL. Among P. aeruginosa strains without carbapenemase the MIC for IMI/REL was reduced between 1 to 5 dilutions.
Conclusions. IMI/REL showed high activity against the strains that carry Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) and against carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa unrelated to the VIM enzyme, mainly AmpC beta lactamase associated with impermeability. Against strains carrying oxacillinase 48 (OXA-48) associated with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), IMI/REL presented activity only slightly better than IMI and had no beneficial effect superior to IMI against A. baumannii.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2021; October 13 [Full-text PDF]

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Rev Esp Quimioter 2021; October 13

Retrospective diagnosis of lymphatic tuberculosis in frozen samples using two genetic amplification methods, Xpert® MTB/RIF ULTRA and Abbott RealTime MTB Assay

MARIANA FERNANDEZ-PITTOL, YULIYA ZBOROMYRSKA, ANGELY ROMÁN, GRISELDA TUDÓ VILANOVA, MIGUEL ÁNGEL BENÍTEZ, JULIÁN GONZALEZ-MARTIN

Published: 13 October 2021

http://www.doi.org/10.37201/req/074.2021

Objectives. The main objective of the present study is to assess the sensitivity and specificity of a retrospective diagnostic of lymphatic tuberculosis (LTB), testing frozen samples using gene amplification PCR methods. The secondary objective
was to compare the results of two different commercial tuberculosis gene amplification methods for this purpose.
Material and methods. We retrospectively studied 38 frozen samples, previously processed for mycobacterial culture between January 2014 and August 2019. The results of the previous cultures were: 21 samples positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) (5 being smear positive), 7 samples culture positive for Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex and 10 samples which were mycobacterial culture negative and discarded for LTB diagnosis, used as controls. The samples were processed using two gene amplification methods: Xpert® MTB/RIF Ultra (Cepheid) and Abbott RealTime MTB Assay (Abbott).
Results. Compared to initial culture results the sensitivity and specificity of Xpert® MTB/RIF Ultra were 57.1% and 100% and 52.3 % and 92.5%, respectively for the Abbott RealTime MTB assay. The differences were not statiscally significant. In addition, there were no differences according to the period of freezing.
Conclusions. Gene amplification of frozen samples confirmed the diagnosis of lymphatic TB in almost 60% of cases, allowing retrospective diagnosis in initially non suspected cases. Both gene amplification techniques tested were equally useful.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2021; October 13 [Full-text PDF]

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Rev Esp Quimioter 2021; October 8

Increased severity in SARS-CoV-2 infection of minorities in Spain

ADRIÁN VALLS CARBÓ, JUAN GONZÁLEZ DEL CASTILLO, OSCAR MIRÓ, PEDRO LOPEZ-AYALA, SONIA JIMENEZ, JAVIER JACOB, CARLOS BIBIANO, F. JAVIER MARTÍN-SÁNCHEZ

Published: 8 October 2021

http://www.doi.org/10.37201/req/099.2021

Introduction. With the global spread of COVID-19, studies in the US and UK have shown that certain communities have been strongly impacted by COVID-19 in terms of incidence and mortality. The objective of the study was to determine social determinants of health among COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the two major cities of Spain.
Material and methods. A multicenter retrospective case series study was performed collecting administrative databases of all COVID-19 patients ≥18 years belonging to two centers in Madrid and two in Barcelona (Spain) collecting data from 1st March to 15th April 2020. Variables obtained age, gender, birthplace and residence ZIP code. From ZIP code we obtained per capita income of the area. Predictors of the outcomes were explored through generalized linear mixed-effects models, using center as random effect.
Results. There were 5,235 patients included in the analysis. After multivariable analysis adjusted by age, sex, per capita income, population density, hospital experience, center and hospital saturation, patients born in Latin American countries were found to have an increase in ICU admission rates (OR 1.56 [1.13-2.15], p<0.01) but no differences were found in the same model regarding mortality (OR 1.35 [0.95-1.92], p=0.09).
Conclusions. COVID-19 severity varies widely, not only depending on biological but also socio-economic factors. With the emerging evidence that this subset of population is at higher risk of poorer outcomes, targeted public health strategies and studies are needed.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2021; October 8 [Full-text PDF]


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Rev Esp Quimioter 2021; October 7

Primer caso de reinfección confirmada por SARS-CoV-2 en el área sur de Gran Canaria

MARÍA AROCA-FERRI, TOMÁS TOSCO-NÚÑEZ, ARACELI HERNÁNDEZ-BETANCOR, ISABEL DE-MIGUEL-MARTÍNEZ

Published: 7 October 2021

LETTER TO THE EDITOR

http://www.doi.org/10.37201/req/093.2021

Rev Esp Quimioter 2021; October 7 [Texto completo PDF]


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Rev Esp Quimioter 2021; October 6

Association between antibiotic pressure and the risk of colonization/infection by multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii complex: a time series analysis

MARÍA HUERTAS VAQUERO, MARÍA ÁNGELES ASENCIO EGEA, RAFAEL CARRANZA GONZÁLEZ, ANTONIO PADILLA SERRANO, MARÍA CARMEN CONDE, GARCÍA, JOSÉ MARÍA TENIAS BURILLO, OLGA REDONDO GONZÁLEZ

Published: 6 October 2021

http://www.doi.org/10.37201/req/061.2021

Introduction. To analyze the association between antibiotic pressure and the risk of colonization/infection by Acinetobacter baumannii complex (AB), evaluating both the individual and general prescriptions of antibiotics.
Methods. This is an analytical, observational, case-control study on patients admitted to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) during an AB outbreak (14 months). A five-year time series was constructed with the monthly incidence of cases of infection/colonization with strains of AB resistant to each antibiotic administered and with the monthly consumption of these antibiotics in the ICU.
Results. We identified 40 patients either infected (23) or colonized (17) by AB and 73 controls. We found an epidemic multidrug-resistant clone of AB in 75% of cases. Risk factors associated with the development of AB infection/colonization were: greater use of medical instruments, the presence of a tracheostomy, cutaneous ulcers, surgical lesions and prior antibiotic therapies. The regression analysis of individual use of antibiotics showed that prior treatment with ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, amoxicillin/clavulanate, imipenem, levofloxacin, linezolid, and vancomycin was a risk factor for acquiring AB. ARIMA models showed that the relationship were greatest and statistically significant when the treatment occurred between 6 months (ceftazidime) and 9 months (imipenem and levofloxacin) prior.
Conclusions. The dynamic and aggregate relationship between the incidence of infection/colonization by multidrug-resistant strains of AB and prior antibiotic treatment was statistically significant for intervals of 6 to 9 months.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2021; October 6 [Full-text PDF]


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Rev Esp Quimioter 2021; October 5

Septic arthritis caused by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicrom: A case report and review

DAVID BRANDARIZ-NÚÑEZ, JESSICA GÁLVEZ-LÓPEZ

Published: 5 October 2021

LETTER TO THE EDITOR

http://www.doi.org/10.37201/req/067.2021

Rev Esp Quimioter 2021; October 5 [Full-text PDF]


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Rev Esp Quimioter 2021;34(Suppl.1):76-80

Approach to COVID-19 pandemic management in Madrid. Chronic of a year

FRANCISCO JAVIER CANDEL, PABLO BARREIRO, JESÚS SAN-ROMÁN, JUAN CARLOS SANZ-MORENO, MARÍA DEL MAR CARRETERO, FRANCISCO JAVIER MARTÍNEZ-PEROMINGO, RAQUEL BARBA, ANTONIO LASTRA, JESÚS VÁZQUEZ, FERNANDO PRADOS, JESÚS CANORA, ANTONIO ZAPATERO

Published: 30 September 2021

http://www.doi.org/10.37201/req/s01.22.2021

After more than a year of pandemic, the international medical community has changed the perception of fear to one of respect for SARS-COV-2. This has been the consequence of the integral study of all the dimensions of the disease, from viral recombinant capacity to transmissibility, diagnosis, care and prevention. This document summarizes the main strategic lines of study and approach to the pandemic in Madrid.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2021; 34(Suppl. 1):76-80 [Full-text PDF]


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Rev Esp Quimioter 2021;34(Suppl.1):72-75

COVID-19 and fungal infections: Etiopathogenesis and therapeutic implications

MARIANA CHUMBITA, PEDRO PUERTA-ALCALDE, NICOLE GARCIA-POUTON, CAROLINA GARCÍA-VIDAL

Published: 30 September 2021

http://www.doi.org/10.37201/req/s01.21.2021

Invasive fungal infection often complicates patients with severe viral infection, especially those admitted to critical care units. Severe SARS-CoV-2 infection has been no exception and a significant association with Aspergillus spp. has been documented, resulting in high patient mortality. In this summary we describe the clinical presentation, the underlying diseases most commonly linked with this association, radiological manifestations and therapeutic management of CAPA.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2021; 34(Suppl. 1):72-75 [Full-text PDF]


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Rev Esp Quimioter 2021;34(Suppl.1):69-71

Respiratory co-and superinfections in COVID-19

JOSÉ L DEL POZO

Published: 30 September 2021

http://www.doi.org/10.37201/req/s01.20.2021

There are few publications on the impact of coinfection and superinfection in patients with COVID-19. Patients with higher severity are much more prone to secondary bacterial, fungal or viral infections. The overuse of antimicrobials in many viral infections (including SARS-CoV-2 infections) undoubtedly contributes to the current antimicrobial resistance crisis. In the context of COVID-19, we are witnessing an increase in multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in our hospitals. The heterogeneity of published studies makes it critical to perform more large-scale studies to better understand the pathogenesis of coinfections or superinfections in the COVID-19 patient.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2021; 34(Suppl. 1):69-71 [Full-text PDF]