The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of the characteristics, causative microorganisms and outcome of brain abscesses caused by anaerobic bacteria over the past 25 years. We reviewed studies on brain abscesses which included infection due to anaerobic microorganisms published between 1998 and 2022. We excluded reports with polymicrobial infections (more than 2 anaerobic bacteria isolated) and those that do not provide enough information to make comparisons, the reports with only one case of brain abscess due to anaerobes, as well as those focused on an only anaerobic bacterium. Also, we have excluded the cases in pediatric population. We searched the scientific literature through the Cochrane Library, EMBASE and PubMed/MEDLINE databases for studies of this condition. We finally included 28 studies with 6,167 patients, of which 715 (11.5%) were cases caused by anaerobic bacteria. There was a male predominance (70%) and mean age of 40.3 years. Most infections were monomicrobial (59.4%). The most common anaerobic microorganisms isolated were Bacteroides spp (43.4%) and Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (35.1%). Cases of brain abscesses caused by anaerobic bacteria were most frequent in Asia and Europe. The source of infection most frequent was otogenic in 84.6% followed by a neurosurgery procedure infection in 23% of patients. The main symptom observed was headache in 95.6% of patients followed by fever (69.5%). Surgical treatment was performed in 48 % of patients and the percentage of patients in whom antibiotic treatment was applied range 88.8% to 100%. The main limitation of this review is the non-inclusion of studies published before of 1998 in which MALDI-TOF MS system had not been introduced in the majority of laboratories for routine identification.
The patient rate with isolation of anaerobic bacteria in brain abscesses is low, but these data could be underestimated mainly due to the fastidious nature of these microorganisms and the difficulties in the identification of some anaerobes.
Objectives. To analyze the frequency of influenza and SARS-CoV-2 co-infections, as well as the differences in the course of disease (risk of mortality, hospital and intensive care admissions) in patients infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus in relation to flu vaccination status in the 2021-2022 season. Methodology. Population-based observational retrospective study in a cohort of 19,850 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between June 1, 2021 and February 28, 2022 on the island of Gran Canaria. Results. A total of 1,789 patients (9%) diagnosed with COVID-19 had received flu vaccinations. 13,676 people (68.9%) had a full course of COVID-19 vaccinations. In the period between June 1, 2021 and February 28, 2022, 8 cases of flu and COVID-19 coinfection were recorded. Hypertension (18.5%), asthma (12.8%) and diabetes (7.2%) were the most frequent comorbidities. There were 147 deaths (0.7%). Older patients ([OR] 1.11 95% CI 1.09-1.13) and people with cancer ([OR] 4.21 95% CI 2.58-6.89) had a higher risk of dying from COVID-19 (p<0.05). Female sex was noted as a protective factor ([OR] 0.61 95% CI 0.40-0.92). Conclusions. Old age, male sex and cancer were independent prognostic factors for mortality. Three doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and influenza vaccines were highly effective in preventing COVID-19-related deaths and hospital admissions. These findings suggest that flu vaccination can help control the pandemic.
Demographic, clinical and microbiological characteristics of the first 30 human monkeypox confirmed cases attended in a tertiary hospital in Madrid (Spain), during the May-June 2022 international outbreak
The present outbreak of Human Monkeypox (HMPX) that has begun in May 2022 and has spread across all continents in less than two months has qualitative and quantitative characteristics that make it different from the pattern of human disease previously caused by this virus. It has spread with enormous ease, affects almost exclusively adults, behaves as a sexually transmitted disease and focuses on very specific groups and transmission conditions. The high incidence in the city of Madrid in males that have sex with males (MSM) has allowed us to observe and report the experience with the first 30 cases diagnosed in our institution. Patients presented with febrile symptoms, genital and paragenital skin lesions reminiscent of smallpox, but less extensive and severe. The disease may also cause proctitis, pharyngitis and perioral lesions. The PCR test for diagnostic confirmation has been shown to be very sensitive and effective, not only in skin lesions but also in blood and other fluids such as pharyngeal, rectal exudates and blood. A very high proportion of patients with HMPX also have other sexually transmitted diseases that must be actively detected in this context. The spontaneous evolution of our patients has been good and hospitalization has been practically unnecessary. Transmission to non-sexual cohabitants and health personnel has been nonexistent and the lesions have disappeared in less than 30 days without leaving sequelae and no need for specific antiviral treatment.
Validity and usefulness of the RAE-CMBD studying patients hospitalised with influenza
VÍCTOR QUIRÓS-GONZÁLEZ, JOSÉ LUIS BERNAL, ANA MA HARO-PÉREZ, JOSÉ ÁNGEL MADERUELO-FERNÁNDEZ, MARÍA TERESA SANTOS-JIMÉNEZ, NOELIA GARCÍA-BARRIO, ABRAHAM L. PAVÓN-MUÑOZ, EUGENIA LÓPEZ-SÁNCHEZ, MARÍA ARÁNZAZU GARCÍA-IGLESIAS, PABLO SERRANO, JOSÉ MARÍA EIROS
Background. Understanding the hospital impact of influenza requires enriching epidemiological surveillance registries with other sources of information. The aim of this study was to determine the validity of the Hospital Care Activity Record – Minimum Basic Data Set (RAE-CMBD) in the analysis of the outcomes of patients hospitalised with this infection. Methods. Observational and retrospective study of adults admitted with influenza in a tertiary hospital during the 2017/2018 and 2018/2019 seasons. We calculated the concordance of the RAE-CMBD with the influenza epidemiological surveillance registry (gold standard), as well as the main parameters of internal and external validity. Logistic regression models were used for risk adjustment of in-hospital mortality and length of stay. Results. A total of 907 (97.74%) unique matches were achieved, with high inter-observer agreement (ƙ=0.828). The RAE-CMBD showed a 79.87% sensitivity, 99.72% specificity, 86.71% positive predictive value and 99.54% negative predictive value. The risk-adjusted mortality ratio of patients with influenza was lower than that of patients without influenza: 0.667 (0.53-0.82) vs. 1.008 (0.98-1.04) and the risk-adjusted length of stay ratio was higher: 1.15 (1.12-1.18) vs. 1.00 (0.996-1.001). Conclusion. The RAE-CMBD is a valid source of information for the study of the impact of influenza on hospital care. The lower risk-adjusted mortality of patients admitted with influenza compared to other inpatients seems to point to the effectiveness of the main clinical and organisational measures adopted.
Emergency detection of HIV infection in patients consulting for conditions potentially related to occult infection: Initial results of the “Urgències VIHgila” program
ÒSCAR MIRÓ, EMÍLIA MIRÓ, MÍRIAM CARBÓ, MIREIA SAURA, ALEXIS REBOLLO, ROCÍO DE PAZ, JOSEP MARIA GUARDIOLA, ALEJANDRO SMITHSON, DANIEL ITURRIZA, CRISTINA RAMIÓ LLUCH, CONNIE LEEY, JOSÉ IGNACIO FERRO, ALBERTO VILLAMOR, EMILI GENÉ EN REPRESENTACIÓN DEL GRUPO DE TRABAJO “URGÈNCIES VIHGILA”
Objective. To estimate the prevalence of unknown HIV infection in patients who consulted in hospital emergency services (ED) for conditions defined in the SEMES-GESIDA Consensus Document (DC), evaluate the efficiency of its im-plementation and investigate the efficiency of HIV serology determination in other conditions. Methods. Results were reviewed in 10 Catalan EDs for 12 months (July-21-June-22) after implementing CD recommendations: request HIV serology in case of suspected sexually transmitted infection, chemsex, post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), mononucleosis syndrome, community pneumonia (18-65 y-o) or herpes zoster (18-65 y-o). Other reasons for request were included. Prevalence (%) of global seropositivity and for each circumstance was calculated, with a 95% confidence interval (95%CI). The efficient strategy was considered if the lower limit of the CI95%>0.1%. Results. A total of5,107 HIV serologies were performed: 2,847(56%) in situations specified in CD, and 2,266 (44%) in other 138 circumstances. Forty-eight unknown HIV infections were detected (prevalence=0.94%;95%CI=0.69-1.24). The prevalence was somewhat higher in DC requests (30 cas-es 1.12%) than the rest (18 cases 0.71%; p=0.16). The individualized prevalence of CD reasons ranged between 7.41% (95%CI=0.91-24.3) in chemsex and 0.42% 95%CI=0.14-0.98) in PPE, always efficient except herpes zoster (0.76%; CI95%=0.02-4.18). In other reasons, cases were detected in 12 circumstances, and in four the determination could be efficient: lymphopenia (10%;CI95%=0.25-44.5), fever with polyarthralgia-polyarthritis (7.41%;CI95% =0.91-24.3), behavioral alteration-confusion-encephalopathy (3.45%;95%CI=0.42-11.9) and fever of unknown origin (2.50%;95%CI=0.82-5.74). Conclusion. The determination of HIV serology in HES in the processes defined by DC SEMES-GESIDA is efficient. Some circumstances are identified that could be added to those previously contemplated to increase efficiency.
Objectives. The importance of Gram-positive microorganisms and atypical bacteria in chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) has recently been described. For this reason, this study analyzes the etiology of CBP, as well as the evolution of antibiotic resistance through a systematic review. Material and methods. A systematic review of studies obtained through the MEDLINE (PubMed) database, related to the etiology and antibiotic resistance profile of CBP, published up July 1, 2021. Results. The most frequent isolated microorganisms that we have found in publications are Enterococcus faecalis (46.90%), Staphylococcus spp. (22.30%), Escherichia coli (15.09%) and atypical bacteria (6.04%). Conclusions. CBP is undergoing and unprecedented change of paradigm. Gram-positive bacteria and atypical bacteria are the main pathogens involved in the aetiology of this entity. This forces us to rethink the therapeutic strategy used, since it is necessary to use antibiotics that assume the etiological change and the profile of antibiotic resistance described.
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