Oral antibiotics are among the most frequently used medications in the community. Its adverse effects are generally considered to be infrequent and mild, and include allergies, toxicities and drug interactions. Antibiotics are able to harm patients by various mechanisms, not always well known. Knowledge of the clinically relevant antibiotic-associated adverse effects can allow a judicious use based on the principle
first do no harm, primun non nocere. In this review we explore the main adverse effects of oral antibiotics with specific focus on β-lactams, macrolides, and fluoroquinolones.
Introduction. In 2012, the Canary Islands Health Service implemented a new surveillance system for nosocomial infections caused by multi-resistant microorganisms and Clostridioides difficile. This system will make it possible to know the incidence rates of these pathogens, periodically contrast them to monitor their trend and compare them with those of other national and European health institutions. Patients and method. Observational, prospective study of the density of incidence of multi-resistant pathogens and Clostridioides difficile in the healthcare centers of the Canary Islands Health Service from 2012 to 2019. Results. The incidence density of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections for 2012 was 1.96 cases per 10,000 stays and decreased to 0.80 in 2019, reaching the lowest figure in the surveillance period. Infections due to carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) showed an upward trend, 0.47 (2014) and 2.35 (2019). The slight upward trend in imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections in observed bacteraemias 0.17 (2012) and 0.09 (2019) has been corrected. No cases of infection with vancomycin-resistant enterococci were observed. With regard to C. difficile, an upward trend that began in 2012 has consolidated, producing an increase of 216% in the number of cases detected at the end of the study period. Conclusion. The most relevant problem detected today is the CPE. The data analyzed in this period showed an evident change in the trend of the multi-resistant pathogens studied. This fact must be confirmed in the future.
Objectives. Mycoplasma genitalium is associated with persistent/recurrent sexually transmitted infections. The aim of this work was to estimate the prevalence and azithromycin resistance of M. genitalium in general population that was attended at Primary Care of Santiago de Compostela Health Care Area. Material and methods. The study was carried out in 2019 in general population of Santiago de Compostela Health Care Area. Real-time multiplex PCR was used for screening of sexually transmitted infections associated pathogens and detection of mutations in the 23S rRNA gene. Results. A total of 502 women and 532 men were studied. The prevalence of M. genitalium was 2,4% in men and 2,9% in women. Overall azithromycin resistance was 20% all of them detected in men. The mutations found were A2059G, A2058G and A2058T. Conclusions. Although the proportion of M. genitalium infection is low, the high percentage of azithromycin resistance detected supports the relevance of these data in order to the right management of the patients with sexually transmitted diseases and, so as, to avoid the emergence of resistance in other pathogens of the urogenital tract.
Introduction. Currently the prevalence of pneumococcal coinfection in patients with COVID-19 is unknown. In this work we present its clinical characteristics, evolution and treatment. Material and methods. Retrospective data collection from August to October 2020 in two hospitals in the Murcia region. Results. Eighteen patients had COVID-19 diagnosed by PCR and pneumococcal infection confirmed by antigenuria, which represented a prevalence of 2%. A total of 88% had radiological alterations upon admission (two patients had an X-ray within normality) and 29% had elevated procalcitonin. Mortality in our series was 12%. Conclusions. It could be reasonable to consider the start of antimicrobial therapy in those cases in which there is a moderate or high suspicion of bacterial coinfection, being essential the early suspension of antibiotic treatment if it is not confirmed.
There is accumulating evidence showing that influenza infection and cardiorespiratory diseases are closely associated. Influenza has been described as a triggering factor capable of both exacerbate underlying chronic diseases as well as inducing the appearance of new respiratory and cardiovascular events. Consequently, influenza infection and its associated comorbidity have a significant impact on the health system. In this document, we extensively reviewed the current literature to describe the most relevant data on the relationship between influenza infection and cardiorespiratory diseases. Likewise, we analyzed the possible pathophysiological mechanisms explaining the connection between influenza infection and cardiac and respiratory events. Finally, reviewed data has been put into perspective to highlight the importance of influenza vaccination as an effective measure in the prevention of cardiorespiratory diseases, especially in the population with underlying chronic diseases.
Background. Many studies have indicated that hospitalization and readmissions occur frequently, especially among people living with HIV. The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of a programmed and structured pharmaceutical intervention, based on “CMO PC model” to reduce the readmission rate in high-risk HIV patients. Material and methods. This was a single-center, prospective study based on a structured health intervention conducted between March-2017 and March-2018 with 12 months of follow-up at outpatient pharmacy services. At discharge, HIV patients included were classified according to the risk of readmission as low or high risk patients, being the latter proposed to participate. The selected patients were randomly assigned to a control group (usual care) or intervention group (including stratification-motivational interview and new technologies: CMO pharmaceutical care). The primary endpoint was readmission rate at one year of follow-up in each group. Results. A total of 39 patients were included. As regards the main variable, in the intervention group, 21,4% (n=3) of patients were readmitted in the first year after discharge vs. 66,7% (n=6) in the control group (p=0,042). Conclusions. Tailored pharmaceutical care based on risk stratification, motivational interviewing, and new technologies has a positive influence to reduce the percentage of readmission in high risk HIV patients.
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