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Rev Esp Quimioter 2019; November 14

Biomarkers of fungal infection: Expert opinion on the current situation 

EMILIO BOUZA, BENITO ALMIRANTE, JULIO GARCÍA RODRÍGUEZ, JOSÉ GARNACHO-MONTERO, MIGUEL SALAVERT, PATRICIA MUÑOZ, MAURIZIO SANGUINETTI

The introduction of non-culture-based diagnostic techniques is revolutionizing the world of microbiological diagnosis and infection assessment. Fungi are no exception, and the introduction of biomarkers has opened up enormous expectations for better management of these entities. Biomarkers are diverse, their targets are also diverse and their evaluation has been done preferably in an individualized use and with deficient designs. Less is known about the value of the combined use of biomarkers and the impact of the negativity of two or more biomarkers on antifungal treatment decisions has been poorly studied. Given the paucity of prospective, randomized and definitive studies, we have convened experts from different fields, with an interest in invasive fungal infections, to an-swer some questions about the current relevant use of fungal biomarkers. This document summarizes the answers of these experts to the different questions.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2019; November 14 [Full-text PDF]

 

 

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Rev Esp Quimioter 2019; October 25

HTLV-1 infection: An emerging risk. Pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis and associated diseases 

EMILIANA EUSEBIO-PONCE, EDUARDO ANGUITA, ROBERT PAULINO-RAMIREZ, FRANCISCO JAVIER CANDEL

The Human T-Lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1) affects up to 10 million people worldwide. It is directly associated to one of the most aggressive T cell malignancies: Adult T Cell Leukemia-Lymphoma (ATLL) and a progressive neurological disorder, Tropical Spastic Paraparesis/ HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy (TSP/HAM). Also, infected patients tend to have more severe forms of infectious diseases such as Strongyloidiasis and Tuberculosis. HTLV spreads through parenteral, sexual, and vertical (mother-to-child) routes. Effective viral transmission is produced mainly by cell to cell mechanism, unlike other retroviruses such as HIV, which usually spread infecting cells in a cell-free form. HTLV also has a peculiar distribution, with clusters of high endemicity in nearby areas of very low prevalence or absence of the virus. This could be explained by factors including a possible founder effect, the predominance of mother to child transmission and the cell-to-cell trans-mission mechanisms. More data on viral epidemiology are needed in order to develop strategies in endemic areas aimed at reducing viral dissemination. In this review, we critically analyze HTLV-1 pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis, associated diseases, preventive strategies, and treatments, with emphasis to the emerging risk for Europe and particularly Spain, focusing on prevention methods to avoid viral transmission and associated diseases.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2019; October 25 [Full-text PDF]

 

 

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Rev Esp Quimioter 2019; October 23

Seroprevalence of measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella zoster virus antibodies among healthcare students: analysis of vaccine efficacy and cost-effectiveness 

İLKER ÖDEMIŞ, ŞÜKRAN KÖSE, İLKAY AKBULUT, HAZAL ALBAYRAK

Introduction. The aims of this study are to determine the seroprevalence for measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella zoster virus (VZV) in a cohort of nursing students, to evaluate vaccination response rates of nonimmune students, and to calculate the cost of vaccinating students based on seroprevalence screening.
Material and methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted August 2015–November 2016 among 326 healthy nursing students aged 14.1–18.1 years. Serum IgG antibodies were measured by ELISA. Results were analyzed by the Chi-square test; a p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results. The number of seropositive participants (%) was 308 (94.5%) for rubella, 295 (90.5%) for VZV, 244 (74.9%) for measles, and 219 (67.2%) for mumps. A significant correlation was found between measles IgG and age. A relationship was also observed between VZV IgG and kindergarten attendance. Response rates to measles, rubella, VZV, and mumps vaccination were 96%, 92.3%, 87.5%, 78.8%, respectively. The total cost of vaccination after IgG screening was less than vaccination without screening.
Conclusions. In this study, participants’ immunity to measles and VZV was low. Prevaccination serological screening was cost-effectiveness method for preventing measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella infections. We believe that administering booster measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine doses or developing a special MMR vaccination strategy for at-risk groups may prevent MMR outbreaks.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2019; October 23 [Full-text PDF]

 

 

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Rev Esp Quimioter 2019; October 23

HPV genotype distribution among women with normal and abnormal cervical cytology in Turkey 

TUBA MUDERRIS, ILHAN AFSAR, ASKIN YILDIZ, CEREN AKPINAR VARER

Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution and to investigate the relationship between HPV genotypes and cervical cytology in women with HPV infection.
Material and methods. In this study, 493 women who were admitted to the obstetrics clinic between 2007 and 2015 years and had HPV positivity were examined retrospectively.
Results. The median age of women included in the study was 37.3 ±10.6. The positivity of single and multiple HPV genotypes was 64.1% and 35.9%, respectively. HPV16 was the most common genotype in women with normal and abnormal cytology. The incidence of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (chi-square:8.32 p=0.04) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (chi-square:13.75 p<0.001) with HPV16 was significantly higher than in other HPV genotypes. In additional, abnormal cytology results in the group 1 (includ-ed HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59) and group 4 (included HPV40, 42, 54, 55, 61, 62, 81, 83, 84) were significantly higher than other groups (chi-square:23.15 p<0.001).
Conclusions. Group 1 genotype ratios were found to be quite high among women with abnormal cytology and women with normal cytology. For this reason, close follow-up is very important in addition to cytological findings along with genotyping, especially from an early age. We were found that multiple HPV infection was not related to the grades of cytological abnormalities. Although abnormal cytology results in group 4 were significantly higher than the other groups, it was not possible to comment on the relationship between these genotypes and cervical cancer since more than one HPV genotype was found in most of these women.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2019; October 23 [Full-text PDF]

 

 

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Rev Esp Quimioter 2019; October 22

Prevalencia en varones de la población general de agentes productores de infecciones no ulcerativas del aparato genital, asistidos en atención especializada 

CARLA FORONDA-GARCÍA-HIDALGO, CARMEN LIÉBANA-MARTOS, BLANCA GUTIÉRREZ-SOTO, MANUELA EXPÓSITO-RUIZ, JOSÉ MARÍA NAVARRO-MARÍ, JOSÉ GUTIÉRREZ-FERNÁNDEZ

Objective. Male genital infections are a major problem due to their high frequency and morbidity and their role in cases of male infertility. We studied the presence, in males assisted in specialized care, of non-ulcerative genital tract infections-producing agents.
Materials and methods. We studied descriptively and retrospective microbiological results of 3,066 samples of male patients, with diagnosis of genital tract infection episode, received between January 1, 2016 and December 31, 2017. Detection of microorganisms in the sample was performed using techniques of artificial culture and PCR (BD-MAX).
Results. Positive results were obtained in 451 samples (14.71%). By culture, the most frequent pathogens were Enterobacterales (18.40%), Enterococcus (13.75%), Haemophilus (8.65%), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (8.43%), Ureaplasma (5.10%), and Candida (3.77%). By polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the most frequent were N. gonorrhoeae (28.37%), Chlamydia trachomatis (26.95%), Ureaplasma urealyticum (17.73%), Mycoplasma hominis/Ureaplasma parvum (10.64%), and Mycoplasma genitalium (7.10%). The age was older in patients infected with Enterobacterales, Candida, or Enterococcus and younger in those infected with N. gonorrhoeae.
Conclusions. N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis are still more common in male genital infection pathogens, although other culturable microorganisms have an important role. These findings demonstrate the importance of systematically applying both conventional culture and PCR techniques for pathogen detection.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2019; October 22 [Texto completo PDF]

 

 

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Rev Esp Quimioter 2019; October 22

Telemedicine, prison and illness associated with HIV 

ANTONIO BLANCO PORTILLO, GREGORIO PALACIOS GARCÍA-CERVIGÓN, MANUEL PÉREZ FIGUERAS, GEMA NAVARRO JIMÉNEZ, GERMÁN JIMÉNEZ GALÁN, MARÍA VELASCO ARRIBAS, LEONOR MORENO NÚÑEZ, RAFAEL HERVÁS GÓMEZ, ORIOL MARTÍN SEGARRAL, CARLOS GUIJARRO HERRAIZ, ROSA GARCÍA BERRIGUETE, JUAN E LOSA GARCÍA

Objectives. Communicate the activity of telemedicine, from its opening, between a hospital consultation of infectious diseases and a penitentiary center.
Material and methods. Descriptive study of the tele-consultation of infectious diseases of the Alcorcón Foundation University Hospital with the Navalcarnero penitentiary center from 2013 to 2017, which is carried out by videoconference. The reason and number of consultations, diagnosis of HIV, antiretroviral treatment (ART), immunovirological situation, diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV= and intervention performed by the infectious expert were analyzed.
Results. A total of 75 patients were evaluated in a total of 168 consultations (in the first year 11 consultations and in the fifth year 62). The index of successive / new consultations was 1.24 and 85% of the patients required less than 1 year of follow-up. 84% of patients did not move to the hospital. 99% of patients accepted this modality. 96% were HIV positive, 94% of them took ART and 85% had undetectable viral load with 532 CD4/mL of medium. 90% had positive serology for HCV. 72% of the consultations were for the assessment of HCV treatment, which was sofosbuvir/ledipasvir by 63%. 40% changed their ART (70% to avoid interactions).
Conclusion. Most of the evaluated patients have HIV infection. This type of consultation has a growing demand, is efficient (avoids transfers and is decisive) and has high acceptance. The most frequent reason for consultation was the treatment of HCV and more than a third of patients required ART change.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2019; October 22 [Texto completo PDF]

 

 

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Rev Esp Quimioter 2019; October 22


Dalbavancin for treating prosthetic joint infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria: A proposal for a low dose strategy. A retrospective cohort study 

LUIS BUZÓN MARTÍN, MARÍA MORA FERNÁNDEZ, JOSE MANUEL PERALES RUIZ, MARIA ORTEGA LAFONT, LEDICIA ÁLVAREZ PAREDES, MIGUEL ÁNGEL MORÁN RODRÍGUEZ, MARÍA FERNÁNDEZ REGUERAS, MARIA ÁNGELES MACHÍN MORÓN, GREGORIA MEJÍAS LOBÓN

Background. Gram-positive bacteria are the leading cause of prosthetic joint infection (PJI). Dalbavancin is a lipoglycopeptide with remarkable pharmacokinetic properties and high bactericidal activity against most Gram-positive bacteria. Although clear evidence regarding its effectiveness in bone and joint infections lacks, recent studies suggest a promising role of dalbavancin in PJI.
Methods. From June 1st 2016 to May 1st 2018, all patients diagnosed of PJI and treated with DAL alone or in combination with other drugs were retrospectively evaluated. Dalbavancin susceptibility of every isolate was studied following CLSI criteria. The primary objective was to assess the clinical efficacy and tolerability of the drug in patients with PJI. A cost-analysis was performed following the DALBUSE study methodology.
Results. Sixteen patients were treated with dalbavancin, eight with total hip arthroplasty infection (THAi) and eight with total knee arthroplasty infection (TKAi). Staphylococcus spp. and Enterococcus spp. were the microorganisms involved. No major side effects were detected. Infection resolved in 12 patients. In 2 patients the treatment failed, and another patient died due to unrelated causes. One patient is currently being treated for hematogenous-spread knee infection secondary to prosthetic aortic arch endocarditis. After discontinuation of dalbavancin, and excluding patients who died or with clinical failure, the median follow up of the cohort was 503 days (interquartile range IQR, 434.5 to 567 days). We calculate that US$ 264,769 were saved.
Conclusion. This study suggests that dalbavancin treatment for PJI caused by Gram-positive bacteria is a safe and effective option that reduces hospital stay and costs. Future reports are needed to confirm these findings.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2019; October 22 [Full-text PDF]

 

 

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Rev Esp Quimioter 2019; 32(5):440-444

Hepatitis C: New diagnosis and seroconversions in a Madrid sexually transmitted diseases clinic 

ERIKA ESPERANZA LOZANO RINCÓN, CARMEN RODRÍGUEZ MARTÍN, ÓSKAR AYERDI AGUIRREBENGOA, MAR VERA GARCÍA, REGINO SERRANO HERANZ, JORGE DEL ROMERO GUERRERO

Indroduction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of new hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, based on their sexual orientation, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, geographical regions and coinfection with other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
Material and methods. This study was carried out at the Sandoval Health Center, reference clinic of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) in Madrid. All HCV seronegative individuals who were reanalyzed for this virus were included, between January 2010 and December 2016.
Results. A total of 59 new diagnoses of HCV were diagnosed. The proportion of men who have sex with men (MSM) diagnosed with HCV was 37% in 2010 and 75% in 2016 and was even higher in the group of coinfected with HIV/HCV (94%). A total of 67 seroconverters for HCV were detected (1.2%) of which 100% were MSM. The proportion of HCV seroconverters with HIV was 89%.
Conclusions. HCV infection continues to be a current health problem, especially in HIV-positive MSM.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2019; 32(5):440-444 [Texto completo PDF]

 

 

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Rev Esp Quimioter 2019; 32(5):432-439

Vaccine-related adverse reactions in immunocompromised patients and in special situations of a hospital Vaccine Unit 

MARÍA FERNÁNDEZ-PRADA, ANDREA VIEJO-GONZÁLEZ, ALBA MARTÍNEZ-TORRÓN, CARMEN MARTÍNEZ-ORTEGA, JESÚS RUIZ-SALAZAR, ISMAEL HUERTA-GONZÁLEZ

Objectives. The aim of the study was to describe the type of vaccines administered in the Vaccine Unit at a reference hospital. Calculate the overall and specific reporting rate of adverse reactions.
Methods. Retrospective observational study for the period between November 2014 and November 2017, on patients who developed an adverse drug reaction (ADR) after the administration of a vaccine and who were notified to the Spanish Pharmacovigilance System. The variables analyzed were age, sex, risk group, vaccine class, co-administration and type of ADR. A univariate and bivariate analysis was performed. The global and vaccine specific rate of ADR notification was calculated.
Results. A total of 18,123 vaccines were administered, of which 20.7% corresponded to hepatitis B virus vaccine. Fifty-three RAM suspects were reported. In 64.2% of cases only one vaccine was administered. Inactivated vaccines accounted for 88.7% of notifications. The highest number of notifications was generated by the 23 serotypes pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. The overall reporting rate was 0.42%. The hexavalent vaccine had the highest reporting rate (2.81%). 49.1% of the ADR were systemic.
Conclusions. The overall reporting rate was low but higher than that of other authors. Proper reporting of possible adverse post-vaccine reactions is essential to contribute to vaccine safety and to increase public confidence in vaccines.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2019; 32(5):432-439 [Texto completo PDF]

 

 

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Rev Esp Quimioter 2019; 32(5):451-457

Historical evolution of the diseases caused by non-pigmented rapidly growing mycobacteria in a University Hospital

MARTA GARCIA-COCA, GRACIELA RODRIGUEZ-SEVILLA, MARIA CARMEN MUÑOZ-EGEA, CONCEPCIÓN PEREZ-JORGE, NEREA CARRASCO-ANTON, JAIME ESTEBAN

Introduction. Non-pigmented rapidly growing mycobacteria (NPRGM) are a group of organisms of increasing interest due to the growing number of potential patients and the difficulties for a proper treatment in many of them. However, the evolution of these diseases in a long period of time and its evolutionary changes has been described only in a scanty number of reports.
Material and methods. We performed a retrospective study between January 1st 2004 and December 31st 2017 in order to evaluate the clinical significance and types of diseases caused by NPRGM. Patients with isolates of NPRGM during this period were selected for the study, and clinical charts were reviewed using a predefined protocol.
Results. During this period we identified 59 patients (76 clinical samples) with isolates of NPRGM, with 12 cases of clinical disease and one patient with doubtful significance (including 6 respiratory tract infections, 2 catheter infections, 1 skin and soft tissue infection, 1 disseminated infection, 1 conjunctivitis, 1 prosthetic joint infection and 1 mastitis). Fifty percent of M. chelonae isolates, 37.5% of M. abscessus isolates and 23.33% of M. fortuitum isolates were clinically significant. None of the isolates of other species were significant.
Conclusions. Most isolates in respiratory samples were contaminants/colonizations. M. abscessus was the main etiological agent in respiratory syndromes, whereas M. chelonae and M. fortuitum were more frequently associated with other infections, especially clinical devices and skin and soft tissue infections.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2019; 32(5):451-457 [Full-text PDF]