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Rev Esp Quimioter 2022; April 18

Clinical and epidemiologic description of a severe outbreak of Salmonellosis in an urban nursery school

ANA RUBIO GRANDA, MARÍA FERNÁNDEZ MIAJA, SARA DELGADO NICOLÁS, ANA FERNÁNDEZ IBÁÑEZ, Mª EUGENIA LLANEZA VELASCO, Mª AGUSTINA ALONSO ÁLVAREZ

Published: 18 April 2022

http://www.doi.org/10.37201/req/134.2021

Objectives. We describe clinically and epidemiologically an outbreak of gastrointestinal infection by Salmonella enterica ser. (serotype) Enteritidis in an urban infant school, which led to high morbidity and significant social alarm. The immediate communication, as well as the adequate study of the outbreak, in both aspects, allowed identifying the pathogen and establishing control measures in a reasonable period of time. Controversial aspects such as the indication of antibiotherapy or the moment of closing the center are discussed.
Methods. We retrospectively collected clinical, analytical and epidemiological information and we reviewed the
methodology of the outbreak study and its results.
Results. A total of 57 children (3-45 months), were affected and had microbiological confirmation. Diarrhea and fever were the main symptoms. 74% went to the hospital and 37% were admitted (mean stay 3.3 days). Factors associated with admission were: dehydration, significant elevation of acute phase reactants and coagulopathy. Twelve patients received parenteral cefotaxime. There were 2 complications: 1 bacteremia and 1 readmission. The initial suspicion of the origin of the outbreak was food, but the analysis of the control samples was negative. Five workers were positive (2 symptomatic). Epidemiologic Surveillance concluded that the probable origin of the outbreak was an asymptomatic carrier and improper diapers handling. The center was closed for 8 days. Cleaning and disinfection measures were carried out, as well as instruction on diaper changing, and the carriers were followed.
Conclusions. Clustering in time and space of cases should be reported immediately for early control of the outbreak. Children may present severe forms of Salmonella gastroenteritis.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2022; April 18 [Texto completo PDF]