Rev Esp Quimioter 2019; 32(Suppl.1):01-07

New perspectives for reassessing fosfomycin: applicability in current clinical practice


Fosfomycin is a bactericidal antibiotic that interferes with cell wall synthesis. The drug therefore has a broad spectrum of activity against a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Both the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have started review processes of the accumulated information on the use of fosfomycin and on information from new clinical trials. The intent is to establish usage terms in Europe and to authorize the sale of fosfomycin in the US. This monograph reviews the most current aspects of the compound. From the microbiological point of view, fosfomycin’s single mechanism of action can provide a synergistic effect to other classes of antibiotics, including β-lactams, aminoglycosides, lipopeptides and fluoroquinolones. The resistance mechanisms include the reduced intracellular transport of the antibiotic, the change in target and the direct inactivation of the antibiotic by metalloenzymes and kinases; however, the clinical impact of some of these mechanisms has not yet been elucidated. The lack of agreement in determining the sensitivity cutoffs between the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) (≤64 mg/L) and the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) (≤32 mg/L), the fact that a number of microorganisms require a higher MIC (Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., Serratia spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and the drug’s different effective concentrations against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria have resulted in recommended dosages for treating multiresistant microorganism infections that vary between 8 and 12 g/day for Gram-positive bacteria and 16 and 24 g/day for Gram-negative bacteria. Fosfomycin has 3 presentations (intravenous with disodium salt, oral with calcium salt and combined with tromethamine),has good distribution in tissues and abscesses and is well tolerated. The pharmacodynamic ratio of dosage production for fosfomycin is AUC/MIC. However, the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamic ratio could be optimized in daily practice based on the pathogen, the patient’s clinical profile or the infection model. Fosfomycin is the treatment of choice for cystitis in immunocompetent patients, patients with transplants, pregnant women and in pediatric settings. The drug is especially useful due to its microbiological activity and oral posology in cystitis caused by ESBL bacteria. Administer intravenously at high doses and combined with other antimicrobial agents. Fosfomycin has been useful in treating infections by multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria, such as Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenemase carriers and P. aeruginosa, extensively resistant or panresistant in urinary infections and in skin and soft tissue. Fosfomycin has also been shown active in combination with daptomycin or imipenem in osteoarticular infections by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Fosfomycin is an old antibiotic that still has much to reveal.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2019; 32(Suppl.1)01-07 [Texto completo PDF ESPAÑOL ] [Full-text PDF ENGLISH]