,

Rev Esp Quimioter 2021; February 19

Significance of a polymerase chain reaction method in the detection of Clostridioides difficile

JERÓNIMO JAQUETI AROCA, LAURA M. MOLINA ESTEBAN, ISABEL GARCÍA-ARATA, JESÚS GARCÍA-MARTÍNEZ, ISABEL CANO DE TORRES, SANTIAGO PRIETO MENCHERO

Published: 19 February 2021

http://www.doi.org/10.37201/req/010.2020

Objectives. Clostridioides difficile (CD) is the most common cause of nosocomial diarrhea. Detection of CD toxin in patients’ faecal samples is the traditional rapid method for the diagnosis of CD infection. Various testing algorithms have been proposed: an initial screening test using a rapid test, and a confirmatory test (cytotoxicity neutralization assay, toxigenic culture, nucleic acid amplification test) for discordant results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a two-step algorithm using an immunochromatographic test followed of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Material and methods. The specimens have been tested according to the following schedule: 1) Step one: All samples were tested for detection of glutamate dehydrogenase antigen (GDH) and toxin A/B using the C. diff QUIK CHEK Complete test. All GDH and toxins positive results were considered CD positives; 2) Step two: When the results were discrepant (only GDH+ or toxins+), the samples were confirmed using the PCR test BD MAX Cdiff. All PCR positive results were considered CD positives.
Results. A total of 2,138 specimens were initially tested. 139 were positive for GDH and toxins. 160 discrepant results (148 GDH+ and 12 toxins+) were tested by PCR, 117 were positive (107/148 GDH+ and 10/12 toxins+).
Conclusions. The implementation of a PCR method showed an increase de 117 positive results (73.1% of discrepant). Considering the sensitivity of C.diff QUIK CHEK (instructions of manufacturer), the GDH discrepant results may be false negatives, y the samples PCR and toxins positives may be real positives results.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2021; February 19 [Texto completo PDF]