Rev Esp Quimioter 2021;34(5):429-440

Oral antibiotic treatment of exacerbation of COPD. Beyond COVID-19


Published: 17 September 2021


COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) includes patients with chronic bronchitis and / or emphysema who have in common the presence of a chronic and progressive airflow obstruction, with symptoms of dyspnea and whose natural history is modified by acute episodes of exacerbations. Exacerbation (EACOPD) is defined as an acute episode of clinical instability characterized by a sustained worsening of respiratory symptoms. It is necessary to distinguish a new EACOPD from a previous treatment failure or a relapse. EACOPD become more frequent and intense over time, deteriorating lung function and quality of life. The diagnosis of EACOPD consists of 3 essential steps: a) differential diagnosis; b) establish the severity, and c) identify its etiology. The main cause of exacerbations is infection, both bacterial and viral. Antibiotics are especially indicated in severe EACOPD and the presence of purulent sputum. Beta-lactams (amoxicillin-clavulanate and cefditoren) and fluoroquinolones (levofloxacin) are the most widely used antimicrobials. This review updates the problem of acute exacerbation with infectious origin from the perspective of etiology, antimicrobial resistance, microbiological studies, risk stratification, and antimicrobial management. The risk, prognosis and characteristics of COPD patients who develop COVID19 are analyzed.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2021;34(5):429-440 [Texto completo PDF]