Rev Esp Quimioter 2022; 35(1):16-29
Decalogue for the selection of oral antibiotics for lower respiratory tract infections
RAFAEL CANTÓN, JOSÉ BARBERÁN, MANUEL LINARES, JOSÉ MARÍA MOLERO, JOSÉ MIGUEL RODRÍGUEZ-GONZÁLEZ-MORO, MIGUEL SALAVERT, JUAN GONZÁLEZ DEL CASTILLO
Published: 19 January 2022
Lower respiratory tract infections, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations (COPD-E) and community acquired pneumonia (CAP), are one of the most frequent reasons for consultation in primary care and hospital emergency departments, and are the cause of a high prescription of antimicrobial agents. The selection of the most appropriate oral antibiotic treatment is based on different aspects and includes to first consider a bacterial aetiology and not a viral infection, to know the bacterial pathogen that most frequently cause these infections and the frequency of their local antimicrobial resistance. Treatment should also be prescribed quickly and antibiotics should be selected among those with a quicker mode of action, achieving the greatest effect in the shortest time and with the fewest adverse effects (toxicity, interactions, resistance and/or ecological impact). Whenever possible, antimicrobials should be rotated and diversified and switched to the oral route as soon as possible. With these premises, the oral treatment guidelines for mild or moderate COPD-E and CAP in Spain include as first options beta-lactam antibiotics (amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanate and cefditoren), in certain situations associated with a macrolide, and relegating fluoroquinolones as an alternative, except in cases where the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is suspected.
Rev Esp Quimioter 2022; 35(1):16-29 [Full-text PDF]