Rev Esp Quimioter 2022; 35(6):519-537

Unresolved issues in the epidemiology and diagnosis of bacteremia: an opinion paper


Published: 28 July 2022


Bacteremia is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and, despite the diagnostic and therapeutic advances of the last decades, the evidence supporting many diagnostic aspects of bacteremia is scarce. Information on the epidemiological evolution of this entity is limited and many methodological aspects of blood culture collection and analysis are under discussion. Furthermore, the recommendations of the main scientific societies on many of these aspects are variable and, in many cases, have not been updated recently.
In this scenario, we have arranged a series of questions on different aspects of bacteremia and reviewed the literature trying to find proper answers for them. We offer our opinion on the topics where the evidence was weak.
The topics covered include epidemiological aspects of bacteremia, indications for blood culture extraction, methods for obtaining and incubating samples, or ways of transmitting results from the microbiology laboratory.
We do not intend to summarize the current clinical practice guidelines, nor will we deal with the therapeutic management of this entity. The aim of this paper is to review the current perspective on the diagnosis of bacteremia with a critical approach, to point out the gaps in the literature, to offer the opinion of a team dedicated to infectious diseases and clinical microbiology, and to identify some areas of knowledge on which future studies should focus.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2022; 35(6):519-537 [Full-text PDF]