Rev Esp Quimioter 2022; 35(6):509-518
Monkeypox in humans: a new outbreak
MARI CRUZ MARTÍN-DELGADO, FRANCISCO JAVIER MARTÍN-SÁNCHEZ, MANUEL MARTÍNEZ-SELLÉS, JOSÉ MARÍA MOLERO GARCÍA, SANTIAGO MORENO GUILLÉN, FERNANDO RODRÍGUEZ-ARTALEJO, JULIÁN RUIZ-GALIANA, RAFAEL CANTÓN, PILAR DE LUCAS RAMOS, ALEJANDRA GARCÍA-BOTELLA, ALBERTO GARCÍA-LLEDÓ, TERESA HERNÁNDEZ-SAMPELAYO, JAVIER GÓMEZ-PAVÓN, JUAN GONZÁLEZ DEL CASTILLO, PATRICIA MUÑOZ, MARICELA VALERIO, PILAR CATALÁN, ALMUDENA BURILLO, ALEJANDRO COBO, ANTONIO ALCAMÍ, EMILIO BOUZA
Published: 6 July 2022
Infection caused by Monkeypox Virus (MPVX) has small rodents as its natural reservoir and both monkeys and humans are occasional hosts. The causative agent is an Orthopoxvirus (MPVX) that was isolated in monkeys in 1958 and proved capable of passing to humans in 1970. It remained contained in Africa, causing isolated episodes of infection, until 2003 when an outbreak occurred in the United States following importation of animals from that continent. Since then, anecdotal cases have continued to be reported outside Africa, usually very clearly linked to travelers to those countries, but in May 2022, a broad outbreak of this disease has begun, now affecting several continents, with the emergence of human cases of MPVX (H-MPVX) infection mainly among Men that have Sex with Men (MSM). The disease has an incubation time ranging from 5 to 15 days and is characterized by the presence of pustules, fever, malaise and headache. The presence of significant regional lymphadenopathy is a differential feature with episodes of classical smallpox. Proctitis and pharyngitis, with minimal skin lesions, may be another form of presentation. Diagnosis can be confirmed by PCR testing of lesions or by demonstration of MPVX in other body fluids or tissues, although in the appropriate epidemiologic setting the clinical picture is highly suggestive of the disease. Effective drug treatment has been developed as part of programs to protect against potential bioterrorist agents and smallpox vaccinees are known to have high protection against monkeypox. New vaccines are available, but neither the drugs nor the vaccines are yet freely available on the market. The prognosis of the disease appears, at least in adults in developed countries, to be good, with very low mortality figures and much less aggressive behavior than that described in classical smallpox. Isolation measures, essential for the control of the outbreak, have been published by the health authorities.
Rev Esp Quimioter 2022; 35(6):509-518 [Full-text PDF]