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Rev Esp Quimioter 2022; September 23

Impact of the use of antibiotics on the clinical response to immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with non-small cell lung cancer

CRISTINA MARTINEZ-MUGICA BARBOSA, ANA CRISTINA CERCÓS LLETÍ, RUBÉN PAMPÍN SÁNCHEZ, CRISTINA DURÁN ROMÁN, PALOMA TERROBA ALONSO, BEATRIZ FERNÁNDEZ GONZÁLEZ

Published: 23 September 2022

http://www.doi.org/10.37201/req/040.2022

Objectives. Recent research suggests that the use of antibiotics could reduce the efficacy of checkpoint inhibitors, in addition to other well-known factors. It could be due to gut microbiota modification, which impact over the immune system response. However, the information available so far is contradictory. The objective of this research was to clarify whether antibiotic use influences efficacy of checkpoint inhibitors treatments in non-small cell lung cancer patients in clinical practice.
Methods. Therefore, a retrospective observational study was designed. Use of antibiotics among patients treated with atezolizumab, pembrolizumab or nivolumab was assessed within 2 months of checkpoint inhibitors treatments initiation.
Results. A total of 140 patients were included, mostly men, with good performance status (ECOG 0-1), all of them previously treated with chemotherapy. An antibiotic prescription was identified in 31% of these patients, mainly fluoroquinolones or beta-lactams. The most frequent indication was respiratory infection. Both progression-free survival and overall survival were lower for patients treated with anti-infective drugs, although this difference was not statistically significant.
Conclusion. More studies are needed to draw conclusions about the impact of antibiotics on the efficacy of immunotherapy.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2022; September  23 [Full-text PDF]